ENS Anwar El Sadat | Mistral Class
ENS Anwar El Sadat (L1020) is an Egyptian Navy amphibious assault ship, a type of helicopter carrier (LHD Landing Helicopter Dock), of the French-designed Mistral class. It was originally built for the Russian Navy and underwent sea trials. Subsequently, the contract was canceled by France and agreement on compensation reached with the Russian government. Egypt and France concluded the deal to acquire the two former Russian Mistral for roughly 950 million euros (Unit cost is estimated at 475 million euros) and renames the first ship to “ENS Anwar El Sadat“. Egypt is considered the first and only country in Africa and the Middle East to possess an aircraft carrier of such type.
Anwar El Sadat – Namesake Origin
Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat (Arabic Spelling: محمد أنور السادات ; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as President in 1970.
In his eleven years as president, he changed Egypt’s trajectory, departing from many of the political and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system, and launching the Infitah economic policy. As President, he led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider Arab World. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty; this won him and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin the Nobel Peace Prize, making Sadat the first Muslim Nobel laureate. Though reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was generally favorable among Egyptians, it was rejected by the country’s Muslim Brotherhood and leftists in particular, who felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a Palestinian state. With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) strongly opposed Sadat’s efforts to make a separate peace with Israel without prior consultations with the Arab states. His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989. The peace treaty was also one of the primary factors that led to his assassination.
General and specialized information
|ENS Anwar El Sadat||N/A||September 23, 2015||N/A||STX France | Baltiysky Zavod Shipyard|
|Cost||Laid down||Sponsored by||Christened||Launched|
|€475 million||June 18, 2013||N/A||N/A||November 20, 2014|
|September 16, 2016||Alexandria, Egypt||N/A||N/A||Active – January 2017|
Systems and Armament
|Aviation facilities:||Helicopter deck and hangar|
The Russian government placed an order for this and another warship in 2011. The construction of these ships would be shared between both countries, with France building about 60 percent and Russia 40 percent. Work started in Saint-Nazaire, France, on 18 June 2013, and in the Russian Baltiysky Zavod shipyard in St. Petersburg on 4 July 2013. Russia would send its parts to France for final assembly. The ship was originally expected to join the Russian Navy in 2015. After final assembly of the main structures in France the ship was then scheduled to go to St. Petersburg, Russia, for the outfitting of additional Russian-specific weapons and subsystems.
The Russian acquisition of these two French Mistral-class amphibious assault ships was considered to be the largest defense deal between Russia and the West since World War II.
In 2014, as criticism of Russian intervention in Ukraine grew, France came under increasing pressure to cancel or suspend the delivery of the two Mistral-class hulls, tentatively named Vladivostok and Sevastopol. Some commentators suggested France try to find alternative customers for the two vessels. In August, 2015, the two governments reached agreement on terms for cancelling the contract; France would keep the ships and fully reimburse Russia.
On 7 August 2015, a French diplomatic source confirmed that President Hollande had discussed the matter with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi during his visit to Egypt for the inauguration of the New Suez Canal in Ismailia. Subsequently, in October 2015, Egypt and France concluded a deal to acquire the two formerly Russian-bound warships for roughly 950 million euros, which included the costs of training Egyptian crews. Speaking on RMC Radio, Jean-Yves Le Drian, French Defence Minister, said that Egypt had already paid the whole price for the helicopter carriers.
Beginning in February 2016, 180 Egyptian sailors began training in Saint-Nazaire, France, on the newly renamed landing helicopter dock Gamal Abdel Nasser, with the support of the DCNS (Direction des Constructions Navales Services) and STX France instructors and Défense Conseil International.
On 2 June 2016, DCNS delivered the first of these two helicopter carriers acquired by the Arab Republic of Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser. The flag transfer ceremony took place in the presence of Egyptian and French Navies’ Chiefs of Staff, Admiral Rabie and Admiral Rogel, Hervé Guillou, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of DCNS, Laurent Castaing, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of STX France, and senior Egyptian and French officials. Gamal Abdel Nasser left Saint-Nazaire after a few days with associated support vessels. Before sailing to the vessel’s home port of Alexandria, Egypt, the warship participated in a joint exercise between the Egyptian and French Navies. On 16 September 2016, DCNS delivered the second of the two helicopter carriers, Anwar El Sadat, which also participated in a joint exercise with the French Navy before arriving at its home port of Alexandria on the 6th of October 2016, coinciding with the country’s celebrations of the 43rd anniversary of the 1973 October War against Israel.
Military exercises – ENS Anwar El Sadat
In October 2016, ENS Anwar El Sadat took part in military exercises jointly conducted by the Egyptian and French navies in the Mediterranean Sea. The drills were held under the code name Cleopatra 2016/2, they were the first for the ship after being delivered to Egypt the previous month. The exercises included a number of activities such as both forces planning and managing naval combat missions.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Франция закладывает второй корабль типа “Мистраль” для России | РИА Новости”. Ria.ru. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: Второй вертолетоносец типа “Мистраль” спущен на воду во Франции
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “DCNS delivers the second mistral-class helicopter carrier to the Egyptian Navy, the LHD Anwar El Sadat”. 16 September 2016.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: DP-65 antisaboteur grenade launchers
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Egypt is only Middle East country to own Mistral helicopter carriers”. 8 October 2016.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Russia’s Mistrals will be rapid response ships – News – Society – The Voice of Russia: News, Breaking news, Politics, Economics, Business, Russia, International current events, Expert opinion, podcasts, Video”. :. 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Mistral : sortie en mer du “Vladivostok” à Saint-Nazaire, des marins russes à bord” (in French). clicanoo.re. 13 September 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Egypt agrees to buy warships built for Russia from France”. BBC. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Egypt is only Middle East country to own Mistral helicopter carriers”. 8 October 2016.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Строительство УДК “Севастополь” – Сделано у нас”. Sdelanounas.ru. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: 01.10.2012. “First Mistral Laid Down at Baltiysky Zavod Shipyard”. Rusnavy.com. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Russian Navy to Receive Mistral Warship in 3 Years | Defense | RIA Novosti”. En.rian.ru. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: John Pike. “Russia signs $1.7 bln deal for 2 French warships”. Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Vladivostok, Russian Navy future Mistral class LHD, specificities and characteristics(Navy recognition)”. March 17, 2013.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Russia Moves Mistral Stern Construction to France”. June 21, 2013.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Russia Moves Mistral Stern Construction to France | Defense | RIA Novosti”. En.rian.ru. 2013-06-18. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “France, U.S. Discuss Russian Mistral Carrier Query | Defense News”. defensenews.com. Retrieved 2014-04-20.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: Jim Dorschner (September 2014). “A Tale of Two Ships: Turning Russia’s Loss into a Mistral Bounty for NATO and Canada – ‘NATO Naval Ship Alliance’ and ‘HMCS Resolute'”. Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on 2014-09-15.
The September 2014 decision by France to withhold delivery of two Mistral class Landing Helicopter Dock (LHD), being built for Russia, represents a tremendous opportunity for the NATO alliance, for the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), and even for a French shipbuilding industry and economy that might otherwise lose out.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: Stephen Daly (April 2014). “French Amphibious Warfare Ships for Russia? Economic Sanctions, Coincident Procurement Opportunities, and the Mistral Class LHDs”. Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on 2014-09-06. Retrieved 2014-09-15.
Then there is the possibility of poking Vladimir Putin in the eye by taking over ownership of the Sevastopol.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Mistral warships: Russia and France agree compensation deal”. BBC News. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: Sallon, Hélène (7 August 2015). “Mistral : l’Arabie saoudite et l’Egypte ” sont prêtes à tout pour acheter les deux navires “”. Le Monde. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “Egypt, Saudi Arabia ‘desperate’ to purchase Mistral warships”. france24. 7 August 2015.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: Regan, James (23 September 2015). “Hollande, Sissi agree on sale of Mistral warships to Egypt”. Paris: Reuters. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: Dalton, Matthew (23 September 2015). “France to Sell Two Mistral Warships to Egypt”. Wall Street Journal. (subscription required (help)).
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: Cullinane, Susannah; Martel, Noisette (23 September 2015). “France to sell Egypt two warships previously contracted to Russia”. CNN.
- ENS Anwar El Sadat: “French Arms Exports Reach All-Time High in 2015”. 14 January 2016.
- “DCNS DELIVERS THE FIRST MISTRAL-CLASS HELICOPTER CARRIER TO THE EGYPTIAN NAVY, THE LHD GAMAL ABDEL NASSER”. 2 June 2016.
- “Egypt is only Middle East country to own Mistral helicopter carriers”. 8 October 2016.
- “DCNS DELIVERS THE SECOND MISTRAL-CLASS HELICOPTER CARRIER TO THE EGYPTIAN NAVY, THE LHD ANWAR EL SADAT”. 16 September 2016.
- “Egypt, France conclude Cleopatra 2016/2 naval exercises”. 7 October 2016.
On 16 September 2016, DCNS delivered the second of two helicopter carriers acquired by the Arab Republic of Egypt in October 2015, the LHD (Landing Helicopter Dock) Anwar El Sadat. The flag transfer ceremony took place in the presence of the two Chiefs of Staff of the Egyptian and French navies, Admiral Rabie and Admiral Prazuck, of the chairman and CEO of DCNS, Hervé Guillou, and of the president of STX France, Laurent Castaing, together with senior French and Egyptian officials. By 2020, DCNS will have supplied seven combat vessels to Egypt, thus contributing to the modernisation of the Arab Republic of Egypt’s defence system.